Table of a selection of biochemicals , neurotransmitters and hormones

How to change our human nature.

Name Produced by Function
adrenaline (also called epinephrine) Is formed by dopamine. Is secreted by the adrenal glands, but also has a function as a neurotransmitter Is both a hormone and neurotransmitter. Exciting; causes anxiety feeling; accelerates the breathing; increases heart rhythm; dilates pupils; controls the fight or flight response. Too much adrenaline leads to paranoia. Too little can lead to depression.
noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine) Is formed by dopamine. Is secreted by the adrenal glands, but also has a function as a neurotransmitter Exciting; causes irritation, hostility; controls the fight or flight response; leads to aggression rather than fear. Too much leads to euphoria. Too little to depression.
serotonin Pineal gland in the brain Serotonin acts on appetite, mood, emotions, concentration and stress resistance. At an excess it creates nervousness, dizziness, and less concentration. A shortage of serotonin can cause aggressive and impulsive reactions. In the evening it is converted into melatonin and makes you sleep.
endorfine (encefaline) Pituitary gland; Midbrain Plays an important role in the feeling of love. Ensures ruffle-like feelings; with too many endorphins: euphoria; too little can cause fear and hysteria.
phenylethylamine (Pea) in the brain Plays an important role in romantic love.



Name Produced by Function
acetylcholine Among others in the small intestine; working in basal forebrain, Hippocampus and cortex Promotes concentration; encourages interaction between neurons.
gaba: gamma aminobutyric acid Ends of certain nerve cells in the brain In particular, inhibits the action of neurons in the limbic system. It also inhibits the secretion of dopamine, creating a natural blockade against too much euphoria. As gaba is neutralized by other substances, it can lead to insomnia. Reduced release of gaba may also lead to epilepsy. As gaba is strongly activated, it can lead to numbness.
dopamine Ends of nerve cells in the brain; Hippocampus Reduces excitement; allows for clear thinking; puts the pituitary gland to produce hormones, which in turn stimulate growth and sex. It stimulates concentration on impending danger and ensures that the adrenaline is used effectively. Dopamine plays an important role in addiction. It ensures, that you are experiencing pleasure, joy and well-being. People with Parkinson’s disease have virtually no dopamine anymore. Too much dopamine can play a role in psychoses and schizophrenia.
MAO-A In the liver and placenta. Works in the brain. Deactivates the exciting amines and thus ensures calmness. If you have too little you will stay excited. Testosterone breaks down mao-a and in this way strengthens sexual excitement and feelings of power. Estrogen also breaks down mao-a and strengthens sexual arousal in women.
MAO-B in the liver and placenta. Works in the brain Deactivates the calming amines, so is the opposite from MAO-A.



Name Produced by Function
oxytocin the hypothalamus Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It is also called the ‘hugdrug”: It is important for the initiation of breastfeeding; ensures bonding between mother and child and between partners. It is the love hormone.
vasopressin the hypothalamus Vasopressin is a hormone that acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It ensures protection of territory and your own beloved love ones; regulates the fluid balance (is used as medication to prevent bedwetting).
crf (Cortical Releasing Factor) ends of nerve cells in the brain Causes stress and depression.
cck (cholecystokinine) duodenum Plays a role in the sense of satiety.
fenylalanine ends of nerve cells in the brain Necessary for the production of neurotransmitters; stimulates alertness and sexual arousal.
melatonine from serotonin in the pineal gland Sleep hormone; can be used as a medication in jet lag.

Table 1.1 Table neurotransmitters